CNC machining television parts

CNC machining aerospace parts in China

CNC machining aerospace parts in China

 

Development and characteristics of aviation structural parts

1 Development Trend of Aviation Structural Parts

Aircraft structural parts are the main components of the aircraft body frame and aerodynamic shape. As modern aircraft meet the performance requirements of stealth, supersonic cruise, super conventional maneuverability, high information perception capabilities, long life, lightweight structure, etc., a large number of aircraft structural parts are used. Using new technologies, new structures, and new materials, its structural parts show the following development trends.

(1) Larger structure.

Compared with the previous welding and assembly mode of small structural parts, the use of large overall structural parts can greatly reduce the number of structural parts and assembly and welding processes, effectively reduce the weight of the entire aircraft, improve the strength and reliability of parts, and significantly improve the manufacturing quality of the aircraft. For example, the rough size of the overall frame of the rear fuselage of the F-22 fighter jet has reached 4000mm × 2000mm.

(2) The structure is complicated.

The overall structure of the aircraft is becoming increasingly complex. Most of its shapes are related to the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft, and the peripheral contours have complex assembly and coordination relationships with other parts. At the same time, the thin-walled reinforcement structure makes the structural parts weak in rigidity, the top structure of the ribs is complex, and the thinnest part of the wall thickness is less than 1mm.

(3) Diversification of materials.

With the gradual improvement of the performance of the new generation of fighter aircraft, new high-performance materials are continuously introduced. High-strength, difficult-to-process materials and low-density lightweight materials have become the two main types of materials for aviation structural parts. The materials of structural parts have gradually changed from aluminum alloys to A situation where equal emphasis is placed on aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and composite materials.

(4) Precision in manufacturing.

Precision manufacturing places higher requirements on the shape, position and dimensional tolerances of structural parts to meet the needs of precise assembly. For example, the maximum accuracy of the web reaches ±0.1mm, which is more than double that of the previous generation aircraft.

2. Process characteristics of aviation structural parts

The above development trend of aviation structural parts determines its process characteristics: complex structure and difficult processing – the shape of the parts involves complex theoretical shapes such as fuselage shape, wing shape and wing body fusion zone shape, and needs to be assembled with multiple parts. combined; large cutting volume – material removal rate reaches more than 90%, some parts even reach 98%; thin wall, easy to deform – there are a large number of thin-walled and deep cavity structures, which are typical weak rigid structures; high processing accuracy – —There are a large number of assembly coordination surfaces, intersection holes, etc., and high requirements for parts manufacturing precision; a large proportion of difficult-to-machine materials—the proportion of difficult-to-machine materials represented by titanium alloys and composite materials is increasing, posing severe challenges to the aviation manufacturing industry challenge.

Development direction of CNC machining equipment for aviation structural parts

With the rapid development of the aviation industry, on the one hand, the size of aircraft structural parts is getting larger and larger, and the structure is becoming more and more complex; the processing precision is getting higher and higher; on the other hand, the proportion of difficult-to-process materials in aircraft structural parts is getting higher and higher. Processing efficiency has gradually become a key factor restricting aircraft development and mass production. In order to meet the requirements of efficient and high-precision CNC processing of aviation structural parts, the characteristics of high speed, high precision, intelligence, composite, and environmental protection have become the main development direction of CNC processing equipment for modern aircraft structural parts.

1 High-speed processing is the main way to achieve efficient processing

High-speed processing technology not only exponentially increases production efficiency, improves the processing accuracy and surface quality of parts, but also effectively solves some difficult problems in low-speed processing: such as the processing of ultra-thin parts, certain special materials (such as fiber reinforcement) Efficient processing of plastics, etc.). High-speed machining is still the main way to achieve efficient processing of these aircraft structural parts.

In recent years, high-speed processing related technologies have developed rapidly, and various performance indicators reflecting high-speed processing capabilities have continued to improve. The current application of high-speed spindles can reach speeds of 420,000 r/min or even higher; linear motors and torque motors have gradually entered the application stage, and the feed speed is getting faster and faster, reaching 120m/min; the feed acceleration is getting larger and larger. The feed acceleration of large machine tools reaches 9.81m/s2, and the feed acceleration of small and medium-sized machine tools reaches 19.62m/s2. Jerk, which reflects the rate of change of acceleration, has become a major indicator of high-speed performance; cutting efficiency is getting higher and higher. , the material removal rate of CNC machining of aluminum alloy structural parts is as high as 5000~7000cm3/min.

CNC machining is a commonly used method for manufacturing aviation / aircraft / aerospace parts (Aviatioin parts will be used for easy description). CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines use computer programming to accurately control the movement of cutting tools, allowing for precise and repeatable production of complex parts.

  1. Aviation parts produced using CNC machining include components such as brackets, housings, fittings, mounts, and structural elements. These parts are typically made from materials like aluminum, titanium, stainless steel, and various composites.
  2. The advantages of CNC machining aviation parts production include:
  3. Accuracy: CNC machines can produce highly precise parts within tight tolerances, ensuring a perfect fit and compatibility with other components.
  4. Efficiency: CNC machining allows for fast and efficient production, reducing lead times and increasing overall productivity.
  5. Complex geometries: CNC machines can create intricate shapes and features that would be challenging or impossible with other manufacturing methods.
  6. Consistency: CNC machining provides consistent quality and repeatability, ensuring that every part meets the required specifications.
  7. Material versatility: CNC machines can work with a wide range of materials commonly used in aviation, allowing for flexibility in part design and functionality.

However, it is important to note that CNC machining for aviation parts requires skilled operators, precise programming, and adherence to strict quality control processes. To ensure the highest safety standards, aviation parts produced through CNC machining must also undergo rigorous testing and certification procedures.

Ways for CNC Machining aerospace parts

There are several ways to machine aerospace parts, depending on the specific requirements and materials involved. Here are some common techniques:

  • CNC Machining: Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining is widely used in aerospace manufacturing. It involves using computer-guided machines to cut, drill, and shape parts with high precision. CNC machines can work with various materials, such as aluminum, titanium, and composites.
  • Milling: Milling machines are used to remove material from a workpiece, typically using rotary cutters. This technique is commonly employed in aerospace for creating complex shapes and features on parts. Different types of milling, such as face milling, end milling, and pocket milling, may be used depending on the requirements.
  • Turning: Turning involves rotating a workpiece while a cutting tool removes material to create cylindrical shapes. Lathes are commonly used for turning parts in aerospace applications, such as creating engine shafts or other round components.
  • Grinding: Grinding is used for precise finishing of aerospace parts. It involves removing small amounts of material using an abrasive wheel or belt. Grinding can help achieve tight tolerances, superior surface finish, and dimensional accuracy.
  • Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM): EDM is a non-traditional machining technique used for aerospace components with intricate shapes or hard materials. It uses electric sparks to erode the material, resulting in highly accurate and detailed parts.
  • Waterjet Cutting: Waterjet cutting involves using a high-pressure jet of water mixed with abrasive material to cut through various materials. It is especially useful for composites and softer materials but can also be used on metals.
  • Laser Machining: Laser cutting or laser drilling utilizes high-powered lasers focused onto the workpiece to melt or vaporize the material. This technique is suitable for precision cutting of thin materials, creating holes, and engraving.

It’s essential to note that the CNC machining aerospace parts can vary widely depending on the specific requirements, material properties, complexity, and quantities involved.

Common Aviation / Aerospace Parts

Aviation parts refer to the components and equipment used in aircraft for manufacturing, maintenance, and repair. Some common aviation parts include:

  • Airframe Parts: These include fuselage, wings, tail, landing gear, doors, and windows.
  • Engine Parts: This category consists of the engine itself, such as the turbine, piston, cylinders, compressors, and fuel systems.
  • Avionics: Avionics parts involve electronic systems used for navigation, communication, and monitoring in aircraft. Examples include flight management systems, radar, GPS, autopilot, transponders, and communication radios.
  • Propellers: Propellers are used in propeller-driven aircraft to generate thrust. They consist of blades and a hub, and may be made from aluminum or composite materials.
  • Instruments: Instrument parts include flight instruments like altimeters, airspeed indicators, rate of climb indicators, gyroscopes, and navigation instruments like compasses and GPS systems.
  • Electrical Components: These include wires, connectors, switches, circuit breakers, relays, and batteries necessary for electrical systems in the aircraft.
  • Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems: Aviation parts for hydraulic and pneumatic systems include pumps, valves, actuators, hoses, filters, and reservoirs used in landing gear, brakes, flight control, and other aircraft systems that require fluid power.

It is essential to ensure the quality and reliability of aviation parts to ensure the safety and efficient operation of the aircraft. Strict regulations and certifications govern the production and procurement of aviation parts to ensure compliance with industry standards and safety protocols.

More ways to manufactur aviatioin parts:

sheet metal fabrication
die casting
plastic injection
3D printing

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