The main components of CNC machine tools

The main components of CNC machine tools

(1) CNC device: the main component of CNC machine tools. The computer numerical control device (ie CNC device) is the core of the CNC system. It is composed of a microprocessor (CPU), memory, various I/O interfaces, and peripheral logic circuits.

  (2) Numerical control panel: The numerical control panel is the control panel of the numerical control system, mainly composed of a display and a keyboard. Realize system management and input, edit and modify the numerical control program and related data through the keyboard and display.

  (3) Programmable logic controller PLC: PLC is a general-purpose automatic control device based on microprocessors, used to complete various logic operations and sequence control of CNC machine tools. For example: auxiliary actions such as the start and stop of the spindle, the replacement of tools, and the switch of coolant.

  (4) Machine tool operation panel: Generally, a machine tool operation panel is arranged to perform some necessary operations on the machine tool in manual mode, and to intervene in the operation of the machine tool in automatic mode. There are various required buttons and switches arranged on it.

  (5) Servo system: The servo system is divided into a feed servo system and a spindle servo system. The feed servo system mainly consists of a feed servo unit and a servo feed motor. Used to complete various movements of the tool post and workbench. The spindle servo system is used for the spindle drive of CNC machine tools, and is generally regulated by constant torque speed and constant power speed. In order to meet certain processing requirements, it is also required that the spindle and the feed drive can be controlled synchronously.

  (6) Machine tool body: The design and manufacture of the machine tool body should first meet the needs of CNC machining. It has the characteristics of high rigidity, high precision, and adaptability to automatic operation. Generally, stepless speed regulation technology is used to make the machine tool feed movement. The speed change mechanism of the main drive has been greatly simplified or even eliminated. In order to meet the high-precision transmission requirements, high-precision transmission parts such as ball screws and rolling guides are widely used. In order to improve productivity and meet the requirements of automatic processing, automatic tool holders and automatic fixtures that can automatically replace workpieces are also used.

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